The Messenger Reader: Stories, Poetry, and Essays from the Messenger Magazine

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The Messenger was the third most popular magazine of the Harlem Renaissance after The Crisis and Opportunity . Unlike the other two magazines, The Messenger was not tied to a civil rights organization. Labor activist A. Philip Randolph and economist Chandler Owen started the magazine in 1917 to advance the cause of socialism to the black masses. They believed that a socialist society was the only one that would be free from racism. The socialist ideology of The Messenger the only magazine of scientific radicalism ...

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